"gigantopterid" = an English noun describing large leaves with complex reticulate venation resembling the Cathaysian fossil seed plant genus Gigantopteris and North American genus Delnortea of the Permian Period, 260 million years ago"

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  • Articles
  • Biostratigraphy of a Permian Standard Section
  • Living "Fossil" Magnoliids: Degeneriaceae of Fiji
  • Guidelines for Authors Wishing to Contribute

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  • Library and Classroom Resources
  • Primer on Developmental Tool Kits
  • Publication of the Year
  • Reading List of Books and Book Chapters
  • The Charles Darwin Bicentennial Reading List
  • Topics for Class and Seminar Debate and Discussion
  • Student Problems
  • A Problem in Paleobotany, Taphonomy, and Computing Theoretical Morphospace
  • Calibrating Pollen Trees
  • Computer-assisted Exercise in the Paleobiology of Insect Vision and the Floral Tool Kit
  • Computing Seed Plant Phylogenies
  • Exercise in ARC-INFO/GIS, Geo-referencing, and Paleobiogeography
  • Origin of Angiosperms
  • Biometry and Scaling in Theoretical Morphospace
  • Chloroplast Capture and Horizontal Transfer (HT) of Genes
  • Coevolutionary Arms Race
  • Coevolutionary Compartments in Deep Time
  • Comparing Theories and Hypotheses
  • Conclusions on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • Cross-kingdom Signaling and Transduction
  • Developing a Coevolutionary Hypothesis
  • Discerning Fingerprints of Developmental Regulation
  • First Clues on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • Fitness Landscapes, Compartments, and Paleoenvironments
  • Gene and Whole Genome Duplications (WGDs)
  • Genome Landscapes and Gene Regulatory Networks
  • Helix-turn-helix (HTH) Proteins
  • Historical Context
  • Homeotic Selector Genes
  • Hydraulic Morphospace
  • Insect Developmental Tool Kit
  • Insect Hexamerins and Hemocyanins
  • Insect Sensing and Hormone Signaling
  • Interspecific Hybridization
  • Land Plant Developmental Tool Kit
  • Literature Cited on the Origin of Angiosperms
  • Mass Extinctions
  • MicroRNAs (MiRNAs)
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  • Natural Products, Phytohormones, and Signaling
  • Paleoecology of Global Catastrophe
  • Paleophysiology and Molecular Biology of Tool Kits
  • Physiology of Homeodomain Protein Trafficking
  • Plant Biology of Cone Development and Flowering
  • Problems with Contemporary Data Sets
  • Progenesis of Reproductive Modules
  • Transposable Elements (TEs)
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  • Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins
  • Arthropod Paleobiology
  • Arthropod Stem Groups
  • Asian Gigantopterids
  • Assessing Homologies and Assigning Character States
  • Bennettitales
  • Caytoniales
  • Computing Seed Plant Phylogenies
  • Conclusions on the Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins
  • Corystospermales
  • Cycadales
  • Dating Angiosperm Divergences from the Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA)
  • Doyleales
  • Enigmatic Seed Plants of the Mesozoic
  • Gigantopterids
  • Gigantopteroids or Gigantopterids? American Delnorteas and Evolsonias
  • Glossopteridales
  • Gnetales
  • Hypothetical Protoflowers of Gigantopteroids
  • Literature Cited on the Paleobotany of Angiosperm Origins
  • Mesozoic Evolution of Holometabolous Insects
  • Paleobiology of Insect Flight
  • Paleobotany of Seed Plants
  • Paleontologic Evidence
  • Paleozoic Origin of the Holometabola
  • Pentoxylales
  • Phylogenetic Considerations
  • Seed Plants of the Mesozoic Era
  • Tool Kits in Homology
  • Top-down and Bottom-up Approaches
  • Vojnovskyales
  • Evolution of Flowering Plants
  • Angiosperm Classification
  • Angiosperm Ghost Lineage
  • Basal Angiosperms
  • Commelinid Monocots
  • Conclusions on the Evolution of Flowering Plants
  • Core Eudicots, Rosids, and Asterids
  • Crown Group Flowering Plants
  • Eudicots
  • Fossil History
  • Literature Cited on the Evolution of Flowering Plants
  • Monocots
  • Primer on Developmental Tool Kits
  • Stem Group Flowering Plants
  • Superradiation of Angiosperms During the Albian
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  • [ List of Tables ]

    Table 1. Comparison of Some Hypotheses and Theories on the Origin of Angiosperms and the Flower

    Table 2. Fossil History of the Provisional Orders of Seed Plants (Excluding Flowering Plants)

    Table 3. Paleozoic and Mesozoic Fossil History of the Main Arthropod Orders of Vascular Plant Antagonists.

    Table 4. Sample Data Matrix of Seed Plant Characters.

    Table 5. Mesozoic Fossil History of Subclasses, Orders, and Genera of Flowering Plants According to Cronquist (1981)

    Table 6. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Basal-, Magnoliid-, and Unclassified Angiosperms

    Table 7. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Monocots

    Table 8. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Eudicots and Ceratophyllanae (Except Core Eudicots)

    Table 9. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Core Eudicots and Unplaced Orders (Except Rosids and Asterids)

    Table 10. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of the Malvid Clade of Rosids

    Table 11. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of the Fabid Clade of Rosids

    Table 12. Mesozoic Stratigraphic Distribution of Asterids


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    [ Index to Scientific Names ]


    Each genus or species listed below is linked to the main section or sub-section of the Gigantopteroid Web Site where the taxon is first discussed. I apologize for not providing links to multiple pages of my site when species appear more than once.

    A kodachrome color transparency that captures the intriguing Cyathea fern scrub of a tropical 3000 meter-high mountain valley on the island of New Guinea is reproduced below. Note the clumps of bryophytes that festoon the tree fern shown in the center of the picture. I thank Dan Norris, Ph.D. for providing the original 35 mm slide for conversion to digital format and posting here.



    A - L

    Abies concolor
    Achillea filipendula
    Actinocalyx bohrii
    Aculeovinea yunguiensis
    Adiantites
    Adonis amurensis
    Afrasita lejalnicoliae
    Afropollis
    Agapitocarpus
    Agujoxylon olacaceoides
    Alamosaurus
    Albuca
    Alisporites
    Allonia decandra
    Alnipollenites
    Alsmithia longipes
    Amborella
    Amborella trichopoda
    Amphorispermum
    Anacostia
    Androcycas santucci
    Androdecidua endressii
    Aneurophyton
    Anomozamites
    Antarcticycas schopfii
    Antiquacupula
    Antiquocarya
    Apis mellifera
    Appomattoxia ancistrophora
    Aquacarpus hirsutus
    Aquatifolia fluitans
    Aquia brookensis
    Aquilegia
    Arabidopsis thaliana
    Araripia florifera
    Araucaria
    Araucarioxylon arizonicum
    Arberiella
    Archaeamphora longicervia
    Archaeanthus
    Archaefagacea futabensis
    Archaefructus liaoningensis
    Archaeopteris
    Archamamelis bivalvis
    Asparagus sprengeri
    Asterocelastrus cretacea
    Asteropollenites
    Asteropollis
    Auritifolia waggoneri
    Austrobaileya
    Autunia
    Avena
    Baasoxylon parenchymatosum
    Baisia
    Baisianthus
    Bambusa
    Baruligyna disticha
    Beaupreaidites
    Bedellia
    Beipiaoa
    Belemopteris
    Betulaceoipollenites
    Betulaepollenites
    Blakea
    Bombacoxylon langstoni
    Bombyx mori
    Bucklandia
    Brachylophus vitiensis
    Brasenites kansense
    Budvaecarpus
    Caliciflora mauldiniensis
    Callianthus dilae
    Callicrypta chlamydea
    Callipteris
    Callistophyton
    Calochortus pulchellus
    Calochortus tolmiei
    Caloda delevoryana
    Callospermarion
    Canella
    Canrightia resinifera
    Canrightiopsis
    Cardioglossum
    Carica papaya
    Carnoconites
    Carnoconites cranwelliae
    Caryanthus
    Caspiocarpus paniculiger
    Cathaysiopteridium
    Cathaysiopteris
    Caytonanthus
    Caytonanthus arberi
    Caytonia
    Caytonia nathorstii
    Ceratophyllum
    Ceratophyllum demersum
    Ceratophyllum echinatum
    Ceratophyllum submersum
    Cercocarpus betuloides
    Chalybea
    Chitaleypushpam mohgaoense
    Chloranthistemon
    Chontrocarpus
    Cinnamomum
    Clavatipollenites
    Clavatipollenites hughesii
    Claytonia
    Claytonia parviflora subsp. parviflora
    Classopollis
    Classopollis myerianus
    Clavatipollenites
    Coahuilanthus belindae
    Coahuilacarpon phytolaccoides
    Cobbania corrugata
    Cordaicarpus
    Couperites mauldinensis
    Cratonia cotyledon
    Cretovarium
    Cronquistiflora sayrevillensis
    Crossozamia
    Cupressus
    Cyathea
    Cycadeoidea
    Cycadeoidella
    Cycadolepis
    Cycandra
    Cycas revoluta
    Cycas rumphii
    Cymatospira
    Dacrydium nausoriense
    Dacrydium nidulum
    Dacrycarpus imbricatus
    Dadoxylon
    Daenikera corallina
    Dahlgrenianthus
    Danaeites
    Danaeopsis
    Deccananthus savitrii
    Dechellyia gormanii
    Decussocarpus vitiensis
    Degeneria
    Degeneria roseiflora
    Degeneria vitiensis
    Delemaya spinulosa
    Delnortea
    Delnortea abbottiae
    Denkania
    Detrusandra mystagoga
    Dewalquea pulchella
    Dicroidium odontopteroides
    Dictyopteridium
    Dictyozamites
    Dirhopalostachys
    Disepalum
    Divisestylus
    Donlesia dakotensis
    Doylea tetrahedrasperma
    Dressiantha bicarpellata
    Drewria
    Drimys
    Elkinsia
    Elsemaria kokubunii
    Elymus
    Emporia
    Endressianthus
    Endressinia
    Endressinia brasiliana
    Eoantha
    Eoantha zherikhinii
    Eoepigynia burmensis
    Eoginkgoites
    Eophyllogonium cathayense
    Ephedra
    Ephedra equisetina
    Eremalche rotundiflora
    Eretmonia
    Eriogonum torreyanum
    Esgueiria futabensis
    Euanthus panii
    Eucalyptolaurus depreii
    Eucommiidites
    Euparyphoselis
    Eurya
    Evolsonia
    Evolsonia texana
    Exesipollenites
    Exnelumbites callejasiae
    Eydeia hokkaidoensis
    Fraxinopsis
    Freyantha sibirica
    Fryopsis
    Furcula
    Fuxianhuia protensa
    Galbulimima
    Gangamopteris
    Gassonoxylon araliosum
    Gaussia
    Geraea canescens
    Gigantonoclea
    Gigantonoclea acuminatiloba
    Gigantonoclea hallei
    Gigantonoclea lagrelii
    Gigantonomia
    Gigantopteridium
    Gigantopteris dictyophylloides
    Gigantotheca
    Ginkgo
    Ginkgo biloba
    Glossopteris
    Glossopteris sastrii
    Glossotheca
    Gnetum
    Gnetum gnemon
    Gnetum parvifolium
    Gothanopteris
    Graminidites
    Guettarda
    Gunnera
    Hamatia
    Haptoncus tahktajanii
    Hedyosmum
    Helicoverpa armigera
    Hibiscus hirtus
    Hidakanthus
    Hironoia fusiformis
    Hordeum
    Huilaea
    Hyrcantha (Sinocarpus) decussata
    Hyrcantha karatscheensis
    Icacinoxylon
    Illiciospermum
    Inoceramus
    Irania
    Ischnophyton
    Iterophyllum lobatum
    Ixora
    Jaguariba wiersemana
    Jambadostrobus
    Jamesrosea burmensis
    Javelinoxylon multiporosum
    Jerseyanthus calycanthoides
    Joffrea
    Joinvillea plicata
    Juniperus deppeana
    Juraherba bodae
    Karibacarpon
    Karkenia
    Kendostrobus
    Kenilanthus marylandensis
    Keraocarpon
    Kerpia
    Klitzschphyllites choffatii
    Komlopteris cenozoicus
    Ktalenia
    Lactoripollenites africanus
    Lasiostrobus polysacci
    Lauranthus
    Leefructus
    Leptostrobus
    Lescuropteris
    Lesqueria elocata
    Leucothoe
    Liaoningia decussata
    Libanoeuaesthetus
    Lidgettonia
    Lidgettonia africana
    Lilium columbianum
    Linophyllum
    Liriodendroidea
    Liriodendron
    Liriodendron tulipifera
    Lithangium
    Litocarpon beardii
    Lonesomia mexicana
    Lovellea wintonensis
    Lunzia austriaca
    Lusicarpus planatus
    Lusistemon striatus
    Lyginopteris
    Lysichiton americanum



    M - Z

    Mabelia archaia
    Mabelia connatifila
    Macclintockia
    Maiandrocarpus
    Malliocarpus
    Manningia
    Mayoa portugallica
    Mauldinia
    Mauritiidites
    Medullosa
    Megalopteris
    Menispermites potomacensis
    Metcalfeoxylon kirtlandense
    Microaltingia
    Microvictoria
    Mitocarpus
    Monanthesia
    Monetianthus mirus
    Monocolpopollenites
    Montsechia vidalii
    Musa
    Myricanthium
    Nelumbo nucifera
    Neogigantopteridium
    Neozamites
    Nephropsis (Sulcinephropsis)
    Neusenia
    Neuropteris
    Nilssonia
    Nilssoniocladus
    Nilssoniopteris
    Nilssoniopteris binggouensis
    Nilssoniopteris corrugata
    Nilssoniopteris vittata
    Nipaniophyllum
    Nipaniophyllum raoi
    Noferinia fusicarpa
    Nordenskioldia
    Normanthus
    Nuhliantha nyanziana
    Nuphar advena
    Nymphaea
    Nymphaea odorata var. rosea
    Nymphaea thermarum
    Oryza
    Otozamites
    Ottokaria
    Pachypteris papillosa
    Pageoxylon cretaceum
    Palaeoanthella huangii
    Palaeocarpinus
    Palaeognetaleana
    Palaeognetaleana auspicia
    Palaeogoniopteris
    Paleanthus problematicus
    Paleoclusia chevalieri
    Paleoenkianthus sayrevillensis
    Palmoxylon cliffwoodensis
    Palmoxylon pristina
    Palmoxylon simperi
    Pandanus
    Pannaulika triassica
    Papaver orientale
    Paraalnipollenites
    Paracaytonia hongtaoi
    Paradinandra suecica
    Paraphyllanthoxylon anazasii
    Paraprotophyllum
    Parasaurauia allonensis
    Paravojnovskya (Gaussia) imbricata
    Patellilabia
    Peltaspermum
    Pennipollis
    Pennistemon
    Pentapetalum trifasciculandricus
    Pentoxylon
    Pentoxylon sahnii
    Permuralia maculata
    Persea americana
    Perseanthus
    Petriellaea
    Petriellaea triangulata
    Phasmatocycas bridwellii
    Picea
    Picea abies
    Picea abies var. acrocona
    Pilophorosperma
    Pinus jeffreyi
    Pinus lambertiana
    Platananthus
    Plataninium
    Platanocarpus
    Platanocarpus brookensis
    Platanocarpus marylandensis
    Platanus
    Platydiscus peltatus
    Platystemon californicus
    Ploufolia cerciforme
    Pluricarpellatia peltata
    Podocarpus
    Polytheca
    Populus trichocarpa
    Potomacapnos apeleutheron
    Pragocladus lauroides
    Prisca reynoldsii
    Progigantopteris
    Proteacidites
    Protofagacea allonensis
    Protohaploxypinus
    Protomonimia kasai-nakajhongii
    Pseudoasterophyllites cretaceus
    Pseudocycas
    Pseudomariopteris
    Pseudotsuga macrocarpa
    Pseudovoltzia liebeana
    Psychotria
    Pterygospermum
    Pterygospermum raniganjense
    Pteroma
    Pteroma thomasii
    Pterophyllum
    Pterophyllum filicoides
    Pteruchus
    Ptilophyllum
    Ptilophyllum muelleri
    Quadriplatanus georgianus
    Quaestora
    Radix carbonica
    Raoanthus intertrappea
    Raunsgaardispermum lusitanicum
    Rehezamites
    Reymanownaea
    Rhabtotaenia
    Rhexoxylon
    Rochipteris alexandriana
    Rudixylon serbetianum
    Sabal bigbendense
    Sabal bracknellense
    Sabalites longirhachis
    Sabalites ungeri
    Sagaria cilentana
    Sagenopteris
    Sagenopteris colpodes
    Sagittaria
    Sahnia
    Salvia uliginosa
    Sandrewia
    Sandrewia texana
    Sanmiguelia
    Sapindopsis
    Sarysua pomona
    Saurauia
    Saxifraga aizoides
    Saxifraga retusa
    Scandianthus costatus
    Schenkeriphyllum glanduliferum
    Schilderia adamanica
    Schisandra
    Schmeissneria
    Scutifolium jordanicum
    Scutum
    Selaginella
    Semionogyna
    Shuklanthus superbum
    Silucarpus camptostylus
    Silvianthemum
    Sinocarpus (Hyrcantha) decussatus
    Sobernheimia jonkeri
    Sophora formosa
    Sorghum
    Spanomera
    Spathoxyela
    Spermatocodon
    Spermopteris
    Spinozonocolpites
    Spirematospermum chandlerae
    Spixiarum kipea
    Squamella
    Stephanocolpites
    Stephanostoma
    Strelitzia nicolai
    Streptochaeta angustifolia
    Sulcinephropsis
    Supaia
    Supaia thinnfeldioides
    Symphaenale futabensis
    Taeniopteris
    Taeniopteris multinervis
    Taeniopteris novomundensis
    Taeniopteris spatulata
    Tarahumara
    Tasmannia
    Taxus
    Teixeiraea lusitanica
    Theobroma cacao
    Thermopsis californica var. argentata
    Thuringiostrobus florinii
    Tianbaolinia
    Topobea
    Trapago angulata
    Tricoccites trigonum
    Trinerviopteris
    Triphyllopteris
    Trithuria submersa
    Triticum
    Tropidogyne pikei
    Tubicaulis
    Tucanopollis
    Tupeia antarctica
    Tylerianthus crossmanensis
    Tyrmia
    Umkomasia
    Umkomasia macleanii
    Valecarpus petiolatus
    Vardekloeftia
    Vardekloeftia sulcata
    Vasovinea
    Verneda hermaphroditica
    Vertebraria
    Vesicaspora
    Viracarpon
    Virginianthus calycanthoides
    Vitreisporites
    Vojnovskya paradoxa
    Walchia piniformis
    Weinmannioxylon petriella
    Weltrichia
    Welwitschia
    Welwitschia mirabilis
    Westersheimia
    Westersheimia pramelreuthensis
    Wielandiella angustifolia
    Williamsonia
    Williamsonia sewardiana
    Williamsoniella coronata
    Winteroxylon
    Woodworthia arizonica
    Xingxueanthus sinensis
    Xingxueiana heilongjiangensis
    Xylocarpus
    Yabeiella
    Yuania
    Yucca rostrata
    Yuhania daohugouensis
    Zamites
    Zamites tidwellii
    Zeilleropteris
    Zeilleropteris wattii
    Zeugarocarpus
    Zingiber zerumbet
    Zlatkocarpus
    Zygogynum


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