"gigantopterid" = an English noun describing large leaves with complex reticulate venation resembling the Cathaysian fossil seed plant genus Gigantopteris and North American genus Delnortea of the Permian Period, 260 million years ago"

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A Holocene debris fan of the Grapevine Mountains east of the Panamint Mountains of southwestern North America, is pictured on the left. The yellow color of the hill is a population of Geraea canescens (Asteraceae, Asterales, Asteranae).

To the right is a close-up of Eremalche rotundiflora (Malvaceae, Malvales, Rosanae, photographed by Homer Hobi).

The 2005 bloom season was extraordinary on the floor and alluvial debris fans of the Death Valley graben. The author and his associates visited the region in April 2005 and captured the following images.

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The inundated Devil's Golf Course of Death Valley, which is a few kilometers north of the lowest point in North America, Badwater (-86 m), is pictured below. The northern end of the Panamint Mountains, including Hanaupah Canyon, Aguereberry Point, and Colville Ridge (2356 m), is in the distance.

The Geraea population was recruited from the 2004-2005 seed bank in the image shown below. The probable source of the seed bank is from the middle slopes of the mountain range shown below.

According to Nathan A. Niemi (2012, Geologic Map of the Central Grapevine Mountains, Inyo County, California, and Esmeralda and Nye Counties, Nevada, The Geological Society of America Digital Map Series Number 12), these rocks comprise the Pliocene Red Wall Basin sequence. Ancient Cambrian rocks make-up the distant mountains (Niemi 2012).

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